Electronic components are parts of electrical & electronic circuits. Each component has typical functionality according to its operational characteristics.
Electrical and electronic components table
Passive components do not need additional power source to operate and can not have gain.
Passive components include: wires, switches, resistors, capacitors, inductors, lamps, ...
Active components need additional power source to operate and can have gain.
Active components include: transistors, relays, power sources, amplifiers, ...