ls -a command in Linux

ls -a option flag lists all files including hidden files starting with '.'

Syntax

$ ls -a [options] [file|dir]

Examples

ls: default list:

$ ls
Desktop   Downloads Pictures Templates Videos
Documents Music     Public   todo.txt
$

 

ls -a: list with hidden files/directories:

$ ls -a
.            Desktop     .gnome2         Music         .shotwell
..           Documents   .gstreamer-0.10 .nautilus     Templates
.bash_logout Downloads   .gtk-bookmarks  Pictures      .thumbnails
.bashrc      .esd_auth   .gvfs           .profile      todo.txt
.cache       .fontconfig .ICEauthority   Public        Videos
.config      .gconf      .libreoffice    .pulse        .xsession-errors
.dbus        .gconfd     .local          .pulse-cookie
$

 

ls -la: long listing format with hidden files:

$ ls -la
total 40
drwxr-xr-x 25 user user  680 2011-08-17 18:07 .
drwxr-xr-x  3 root root   60 2011-08-17 16:19 ..
-rw-r--r--  1 user user  220 2011-08-17 16:19 .bash_logout
-rw-r--r--  1 user user 3353 2011-08-17 16:19 .bashrc
drwx------  7 user user  220 2011-08-17 17:58 .cache
drwx------  9 user user  220 2011-08-17 18:02 .config
drwx------  3 user user   60 2011-08-17 16:19 .dbus
drwxr-xr-x  2 user user   80 2011-08-17 16:52 Desktop
drwxr-xr-x  2 user user   40 2011-08-17 16:52 Documents
drwxr-xr-x  2 user user   40 2011-08-17 16:52 Downloads
-rw-------  1 user user   16 2011-08-17 16:20 .esd_auth
drwxr-xr-x  2 user user  100 2011-08-17 17:56 .fontconfig
drwx------  4 user user   80 2011-08-17 16:52 .gconf
drwx------  2 user user   60 2011-08-17 18:14 .gconfd
drwx------  5 user user  100 2011-08-17 16:52 .gnome2
drwxr-xr-x  2 user user   60 2011-08-17 17:58 .gstreamer-0.10
-rw-r--r--  1 user user  142 2011-08-17 16:52 .gtk-bookmarks
dr-x------  2 user user    0 2011-08-17 16:52 .gvfs
-rw-------  1 user user  318 2011-08-17 16:52 .ICEauthority
drwxr-xr-x  3 user user   60 2011-08-17 17:56 .libreoffice
drwxr-xr-x  3 user user   60 2011-08-17 16:52 .local
drwxr-xr-x  2 user user   40 2011-08-17 16:52 Music
drwxr-xr-x  2 user user   40 2011-08-17 16:52 .nautilus
drwxr-xr-x  2 user user  120 2011-08-17 18:14 Pictures
-rw-r--r--  1 user user  675 2011-08-17 16:19 .profile
drwxr-xr-x  2 user user   40 2011-08-17 16:52 Public
drwx------  2 user user  160 2011-08-17 16:20 .pulse
-rw-------  1 user user  256 2011-08-17 16:20 .pulse-cookie
drwxr-xr-x  5 user user  100 2011-08-17 17:58 .shotwell
drwxr-xr-x  2 user user   40 2011-08-17 16:52 Templates
drwx------  3 user user   60 2011-08-17 18:02 .thumbnails
-rw-r--r--  1 user user  131 2011-08-17 18:07 todo.txt
drwxr-xr-x  2 user user   40 2011-08-17 16:52 Videos
-rw-------  1 user user 8030 2011-08-17 18:16 .xsession-errors
$

 


See also

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